Submitted by Owen McCafferty on Thu, 2010-01-14
- Inverurie (1307)
- Methven (1306)
- Pass of Brander (1307)
- Dalry (1306)
- Dupplin Moor (1332)
- Stirling Bridge(1297)
- Bannockburn (1314)
- Falkirk (1298)
- Dunbar (1296)
- Loudon Hill (1307)
The Wars of Independence
1296 Edward I Invades Scotland & the Battle of Dunbar
When the Scots signed a treaty with England’s old enemy, France, King Edward I decided it was time to crush the Scots once and for all…thus started the wars of independence.
In 1296 an English army, said to number 35,000 men, marched up the East Coast of England on their way to invade Scotland. They crossed the Scottish border at the small town of Coldstream and then marched north onto the town of Berwick. The English sacked Berwick, then a rich Scottish burgh, slaughtering 16,000 of its inhabitants: men, women and children.
After sacking Berwick the English continued along the coast heading for the town of Dunbar. Before reaching Dunbar, Edward was met by a large but inexperienced Scottish army, which was heavily defeated by Edward at the Battle of Dunbar (1296). From then on there was very little to stop Edward and the English who soon occupied much of Scotland, advancing all the way to Elgin. The disputed King of Scotland, Balliol, surrendered at Brechin, earning his nickname Toom Tabard – empty coat – and was stripped of his office.
Edward took over control of Scotland, installing English garrisons in many castles. He eventually returned south, taking with him the Stone of Destiny and Coronation Chair, on which the kings of Scotland had been inaugurated, Edward stripped Scotland of many of it’s treasures.
Edward forced over 2,000 nobles, churchmen and landholders to swear allegiance to him. The list of their names became known as The Ragman Roll, after the ragged look of all the different seals and ribbons.
The Scots where now under English rule, Scotland had no king, no army and no weapons.